World reaction to TEST

The government regretted the nuclear tests India carried out on Monday. The government also recalled that Argentina had signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the objective of which is to end such nuclear explosions, and noted that the Indian nuclear tests were not in accordance with this objective. 
(Clarin Digital, 12 May 98) 

Australia withdrew its high commissioner to India, Rob Laurie, in response to the initial Indian tests. Foreign Minister Alexander Downer said the Australian government regarded the subsequent tests "as beyond the pale of international behavior." He also said, "it is a quite terrible thing of the Indian government to have done." Downer also said Australia would lodge a strong diplomatic complaint with India and that, "the important thing is that we take measures that just aren't symbolic, that are going to be effective in stopping India continuing with this program." 
(The Australian, 14 May 98; BBC News, 13 May 98) 
Prime Minister John Howard referred to the Indian tests as "an ill-judged step." 
(The Times, 13 MMay 98) 

The Brazilian government said it profoundly laments the actions of the Indian government, which put the nuclear nonproliferation regime at risk. The government also urged India to accede to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, which constitutes an important step towards nuclear disarmament, a goal to which Brazil is firmly committed. 
(Ministry of Foreign Relations, 13 May 98) 

Canada has withdrawn its high commissioner to India, Peter Walker. Deputy Prime Minister Herb Gray said, "we are very concerned about this, and we are prepared and are taking concrete action." Gray also said that "Canada deplores the actions of India." 
(Toronto Star, 13 May 98) 

Foreignn Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy said, "we are deeply concerned and very disappointed with India's decision to carry out these nuclear tests. This incident is contrary to the international norms established by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. These tests could have grave implications for global non-proliferation and disarmament, as well as for regional security. We urge India to renounce its nuclear weapons program and to sign the NPT and the CTBT." 
(Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 11 May 98) 

Referring to India's three nuclear tests on Monday, Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao said that the government "expresses grave concern about India conducting nuclear tests." Zhu said, Indian nuclear testing "runs against international trend and is detrimental to the peace and stability of the South Assian region." 
(Lateline News, 12 May 98; CNN, 13 May 98) 

On 13 May the Chinese government stated that it was "shocked and strongly condemns" the Indian nuclear tests and called for the international community to "adopt a unified stand and strongly demand that India immediate stop development of nuclear weapons." 
(Reuters, 13 May 1998) 

France has criticized India but said it opposed US sanctions and will not apply its own. 
(International Herald Tribune, 14 May 98) 

A Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson said in a press conference that in the Ministry's official statement, "France reiterates its commitment both to the cause of disarmament and non-proliferation and to the improvement of securityy and stability in South Asia. In this context, it expresses its concern and calls on all the region's states to show restraint." 
(Info-France-USA, 12 May 98) 

"We condemn the nuclear tests which were carried out by India on 11 and 13 May. Such action runs counter to the will expressed by 149 signatories to the CTBT to cease nuclear testing, to efforts to strengthen the global non-proliferation regime and to steps to enhance regional and international peace and security. It has been met by immediate international concern and opposition, from governments and more widely. We underline our full commitment to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty as the cornerstones of the global non-proliferation regime and the essential foundations for  the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. We express our grave concern about the increased risk of nuclear and missile proliferation in South Asia and elsewhere. We urge India and other states in the region to refrain from further tests and the deployment of nuclear weapons or ballistic missiles. We call upon India to rejoin the mainstream of international opinion, to adhere unconditionally to the NPT and the CTBT and to enter into negotiations on a global treaty to stop the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. India’s relationship with each of us has been affected by these developments. We are making this clear in our own direct exchanges and dealings with the Indian Government and we call upon other states similarly to address their concerns to India. We call upon and encourage Pakistan to exercise maximum restraint in the face of these tests and to adhere to international non-proliferation norms. " 
(Official statement following the Birmingham Summit, 15 May 1998) 

Chancellor Helmut Kohl said that the federal government "will make it clear that this was the wrong decision for them to take; that we do not accept that decision." Kohl noted, "this decision will make a contribution to increasing tensions in the region because it, too, is in a way a direct challenge to the neighboring countries." 
(Office of the Press Secretary, 13 May 98) 

Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel said the Indian tests are a setback for the efforts of international nonproliferation, and that any German sanctions would depend on the European Union. 
(AP, 11 May 98; Reuters, 13 May 98) 

Minister for economic cooperation Carl-Dieter Spranger cancelled aid talks with Indian officials that had been scheduled for Tuesday, and a portion of new development aid forr India was put on hold. 
(AP, 13 May 98) 

Israel will not condemn India for conducting nuclear tests, nor will it publish an official response to the tests. Unofficially, Israeli representatives said that, "Israel has signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and calls on all countries in the world to sign it." The unofficial comment is not published, but is quoted by Israel's official representatives at home and abroad. 
(Ha'aretz, 17 May 98) 

Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto said that the nuclear tests were "extremely regrettable," and announced that Japan would cut off all aid, except humanitarian aid, to India. 
(AP, 12 May 98; CNN, 13 May 98). 

Chief Cabinet Secretary Kanezo Muraoka said, "It is extrremely regrettable that India conducted such testing, while the international community including Japan had repeatedly requested the new Indian administration to exercise maximum restraint on nuclear policies." 
(AP, 12 May 98) 

Foreign Minister Keizo Obuchi lodged a formal protest with Indian ambassador Siddharth Singh in Tokyo. 
(AP, 12 May 98) 

Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said, "I wish to assure the nation that Pakistan has the capability to respond to any threat to its security…. We will take all necessary measures to safeguard our security, sovereignty, territorial integrity and national interests." 
(AP, 12 May 98) 

Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub Khan said, "Indian actions, which pose an immediate and grave threat to Pakistan's security, will not go unanswered." Khan told the press that Pakistan had "a superior technology than India's in both missile and nuclear fields." 
(Reuters, 13 May 98) 

Pakistan's Defense Committee called India's three nuclear tests on Monday "reckless and highly provocative." 
(CNN, 13 May 98) 

Foreign Ministry spokesman Nadeem Kiyani said that Pakistan condemns India's two nuclear tests on Wednesday, adding, "we are looking into the situation." 
(CNN, 13 May 98) 

Abdul Qadeer Khan, father of Pakistan's nuclear research program, said he only needed orders from the government to carry out a nuclear explosion within 10 days. He said, "It is a political decision. Now it all depends on the government." 
(The Times, 13 May 98) 

Former Prime Minister and Opposition leader Benazir Bhutto said, "India has now gone ahead conducting three nuclear tests and I expect Pakistan to follow the suit." 
(AP, 13 May 98) 

Lt. Gen. (retired) Hamid Gul urged the government to devise an "equally matching and powerful response" to the Indian nuclear tests. 
(AP, 12 May 98)

Russian Reaction--An analysis by Dr. Scott Parrish, CNS Senior Research Associate. 

South Africa 
According to a Department of Foreign Affairs statement, "the South African Government has noted with deep concern the three underground nuclear tests carried out by India in the Pokharan range in the state of Rajastan. The South African government opposes the testing of nuclear devices as a matter of principle and hopes that these tests will not lead to an arms race in South Asia." 
(Department of Foreign Affairs, 12 May 98) 

President Nelson Mandela noted that South Africa has called upon all countries to help the United Nation promote peace and stability, and said that "the proliferation of destructive weapons is contrary to those efforts and therefore we condemn it (the tests) without reservation." When asked whether South Africa would impose sanctions, Mandela commented that "we prefer that all these things should be done by the United Nations and that no country should take an individual position on matters that affect the international community." 
(Sapa, 13 May 98) 

Deputy Foreign Affairs Minister Aziz Pahad said that South Africa had no plans to impose economic sanctions against India. 
(Sapa, 12 May 98) 

South Korea 
A spokesman for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade expressed the government's "deep regrets over India's underground nuclear testing at a time international efforts are being stepped up to realize a world without nuclear testing." 
(KPS, 13 May 98) 

United Kingdom 
Defense Minister George Robertson said, "it is not a helpful move and not a good day for the world as a whole. The repercussions are obvious and ominous. It is very worrying for the international community." 
(China Daily, 13 May 98) 

A Foreign Office statement said, "reports of two further tests today were in flagrant disregard of the concerns already expressed by the international community and made matters yet worse." 
(Financial Times, 13 May 98) 

United Nations 
A spokesman for Secretary General Kofi Annan said that Annan "learned with deep regret of the announcement that India had conducted three underground nuclear tests." The spokesman said that Annan was "concerned that the latest testing is inconsistent with the pattern which has been firmly endorsed by the international community." 
(United Nations, 11 May 98) 

Secretary General Annan stated that he is "deeply disturbed" by the announcement that India had conducted two more nuclear tests on Wednesday. Annan said he "continued to look forward to the unequivocal assurance of India and all other States that the international community's norm on nuclear testing and non-proliferation would be adhered to." 
(UN Daily Highlights, 13 May 98) 

Presidentt of the General Assembly Hennadiy Udovenko of Ukraine expressed "dismay and disappointment" at the Indian series of tests. 
(UN Daily Highlights, 13 May 98) 

The Security Council stated that it "strongly deplores" India's five nuclear tests, and "strongly urges" India to refrain from conducting further tests. The council said in a statement, "it is the view that such testing is contrary to the de facto moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosives, and to global efforts toward nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear disarmament." 
(Reuters, 14 May 1998) 

United States 
President Bill Clinton stated that the Indian nuclear tests "were unjustified. They clearly create a dangerous new instability in their region. And, as a result, in accordance with United States law, I havee decided to impose economic sanctions against India." 
(Office of the Press Secretary, 13 May 98) 

Clinton recalled US ambassador to India Richard Celeste to Washington for consultation. 
(CNN, 13 May 98) 

National Security Advisor Samuel Berger said that the United States was "deeply disappointed" by the Indian decision to "test nuclear weapons." 
(USIA Washington File, 11 May 98) 

White House Press Secretary Mike McCurry said that India's decision to conduct nuclear tests "runs counter to the effort the international community is making to promulgate a comprehensive ban on such testing." 
(USIA Washington File, 11 May 98)